Zonguldak is the main hub for Turkey’s mining. The city was established in 1849 as a port town for the coal mines. Apply for visa for Turkey couldn’t be any easier when you have visited our website. The process has been designed to make this stage of your journey very simple when you apply for visa for Turkey.

Zonguldak Province

Zonguldak , Turkey ‘s provinces. Black Sea province located on the coast, especially the harbor with Turkey ‘s Black Sea has an important place in the sea trade between their countries. Moreover, Turkey’s richest coal hosts the mine. However, in recent years, the city is getting tense every day due to its income from the one way stone coal. In 1995, due to the fact that Karabük is a province, falling back from the industry has accelerated migration out of the city. At this moment, he is still in exile.

History

The Source of Zonguldak’s Name There are various narratives and opinions about where the name of Zonguldak comes from, as it is on many walks. Zonguldak city center is located in the mouth of a former swamp of Üzülmez Deresi. The village settlement known as “Sandraka / Sandrake” in the early ages was the settlement area of ​​the province and its name was taken from Sandra Çayı (Üzülmez / Zonguldak Deresi). According to another opinion, the word “Zonguralik, Zunguralık, Zongalık, Zungalık” which means “reed, marsh” has changed over time and has turned into Zonguldak because of being covered with reeds. The assumption that reinforces this view suggests that it comes from the word “Zonklatan”, which means “shivering place” which is the symptom of malaria caused by reed and bog. On the other hand, according to the opinion of the city, in the first French and Belgian companies operating the quarries, the result of taking the triangulation point of Lake Dağ next to the city, and reading “Zone Gheul Dagh” in Turkish meaning “Lake Mountain cut or region”. History of Zonguldak City

The history of Zonguldak, which has become a city center in a short time, is very new to the history of the region. The formation of the city began with the operation of this coal mine in the air.

Domestic and foreign capital inflows into the havas started when the mines passed the activity. The economic and social conditions leading to this coal mine, as they are opened one after the other, have brought a new settlement to the area where the mine quarries are opened. Until 1896, Zonguldak was named as “Zonguldak nam mevki” in Eregli livas.

In 1893, the construction of Zonguldak harbor incendiary, the area of ​​Zonguldak, the area of ​​activity of Zonguldak, which was very old compared to the historical Zonguldak, kept its position because the number of population and number of buildings increased rapidly. Zonguldak was ruled as an accident organization until 1920. However, Zonguldak was taken out of the accident class on 1 June 1920 and taken into the class of municipality (district), as the production and sales of the mining ore increased, or rather the economic conditions increased in parallel with the conditions in the city.

Zonguldak was the first province to be founded after the Republic on April 1, 1924.

2.1. During the Phrygian Period

, the Aegean migration tribes, whose weight was established by the Phrygian tribes in 1200 BC, spread over Central Anatolia via Thrace. From these tribes Bythin, Mariandyn and Migdons settled in the Zonguldak region and formed the first known people of the region. The Phrygians and other tribes, while not being able to form a political organizational structure for several centuries, have achieved considerable development in mining and handcrafts in the southern regions of Zonguldak. The later Kimmers (676 BC), who came from the Caucasus and entered Anatolia, lifted Phrygia from the center as a result of the campaigns they had organized behind them. The Kimmers later weakened as a result of the war they had with the Lydians and Assyrians. They have left Anatolia, unable to hold on to the result of the wars they have done with the Med state from Iran.

2.2. The Period of Colonization

After the Cimmerians left the region, the Lydian State expands to the north. provided a superiority in the Zonguldak region in the 20th century. In the same year, the Megarans and the Boatyians who lived on the western Anatolian coasts came to Zonguldak regions. They set out to build small commercial docks where they can unload the goods they brought from the Black Sea coast. Among these were columns like Filyos, Amasra, Ereğli. The Persians ended the Lydian rule in Zonguldak at 546 BC.

2.3. Persia Period

For 213 years, the Persians have dominated all of Anatolia, but they have not been involved in the management of the colony cities. However, they have tried to bring their own supporters, called “Tirana”, to the management of these cities. In 334 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia, who passed Anatolia in 334 BC, survived the Persian army near the Bronikos (Biga) Stream and the Persian dominance ended in this region.

2.4. Iskender and Bitinya Kingdom

Alexander left Macedonian officers to rule the region. Kalas, an officer of Alexander, tried to create a pressure in the region. But the Bythinian leader was defeated by Bas’s resistance. At 326 BC, the Romans entered Bythinia in 85 BC and plundered Izmit. The king of Bythinia had to recognize the Roman hegemony. In 70 BC, the Romans took the Black Sea shores from Ereğli to Samsun. Therefore, the Zonguldak region became the pre-Asian province of Rome.

2.5. Romans During the

70s BC the Romans seized Herakleia and its surroundings. Herakleia was looted. The gold of the city’s agora was taken to Rome, where the Herakles were sculpted.

The geographer Strabon who wrote in Roman times refers to Herakleia as “a city with good harbors”. There are ports on either side of Amastris on a peninsula stop. The best type of boxwood grows mostly on Amastris soil, especially around Kytaron (Gideros). The Romans connected Herakleia, Teion, Amastris, secondary routes to Nikomedia (Amasya) – Amasia (Amasya) because they are port and defense points for the coastal cities. These cities are the temples, theaters, aqueducts, warehouses, bazilas, fountains, etc., some of which survive daily. were expanded by constructions.

Before Christianity, it was worshiped many gods and gods, especially Zeus Strategos in the region. The sea god Poseidon also had great respect. In Amastris there was a temple dedicated to Poseidon. Heraclia and Amastris coats show Poseidon descriptions. In Amastris there were temples and altars of Egyptian gods Pis, Seragis, Apis. Also, Amastris had a sacred lotus nest of Egyptian descent.

According to Christians, the Christian Apostle Anderas spread on the shores of the Black Sea. In the period when the Christians were oppressed, the caves (Cehennemağzı Caves) in Ayazma Deresi Valley in Herakleia were used as churches. The greatest cave known as the Cave of the Holy Caves is the folk sculptures and burials of Christianity. According to the legend, Hyakinthas, who was killed by pagans because he broke up the fan in Amastris with an ax, was later counted as the local saint of the city.

2.6. Byzantine Period

The eastern part of Rome (Byzantine), divided in 395, was located within the boundaries of the Opsikian Theme in VII. During the Byzantine period, Herakleia, Tieion, Amastris, the main east side of the Empire were important stops on Trapezus road. Initially, some metropolitans, Herakleia and Amastris, were reduced to the bishopric level during the reign of Emperor Justinianas. These cities lost their former splendor from day to day because of their presence on the coast of the Black Sea, an inner sea, and the limitations of the art zones.

At the end of the VIII century, a stream of Muslim Arabs surrounded the environment. In the mid-IX century, Russian pirates began to loot the coastal cities. In one of these streams Amastris was completely destroyed and destroyed. After this destruction, the actual city outside the city walls was abandoned.

At the time when the Turks began to spread in Anatolia, the old towns around Zonguldak were a small town-castle view. At the end of the XIIIth century, the Genoese settled in Herakleia and Amastris, establishing trade centers, and after a while they took over the administration of these cities. Spanish ambassador Clavija, who visited Amastris on his way to Timur, wrote that the actual city outside the castle was a ruin. This shows that the Genoese only benefit from the port. At the castle, there are the carved stones of the Genoese state’s well-known families, indicating the repairs of the Genoese.

2.7.Anadolu Seljuk Period

At the end of the XI century, Turks began to dominate the future of Anatolia, and the old cities in Zonguldak were in the form of small castles and towns. The weakening of the Byzantine administration in these years has not left any trace of security in this area. The dukkas, officers of the Byzantine Empire, lost their significance to the maritime trades, as they had tied up the people and stripped the sailboats to the harbors. The castle and chats that served as police stations in the intra-coastal zone trade passed to the owners of the gangs.

Emir Karatekin, the first Turkish commander who appeared in the Zonguldak airport during this turbulent period. This brave Turkish commander captured Ulus, Bartın and Devrek lands in 1084. Later Emir Karatekin, who was heading for the coast, captured Zonguldak region. He took Sinop in 1085. However, it did not take long for the Turks to take part. Due to the conflict between the Great Seljuks and the Anatolian Seljuks, Zonguldak and its passengers passed the Byzantines again in 1086.

The Anatolian Seljuks, Crusades and I.Kılıçarslan’s deaths in 1107, which had recovered in the end of 1092, were left weak. Therefore, the Anatolian Seljuks were away from the Zonguldak region. The Danişmendlılar who benefited from their situation, although they proceeded as far as Ereğli by conquering the Black Sea shores, could not obtain the whole of the region. The Anatolian Seljuks, who were strengthened by II.Kılıç Arslan’s passing on the throne in 1155, suffered a heavy defeat of the Byzantine army in 1176 and abolished the Danişmendliler state in 1178. However, despite these successes, Zonguldak and their passengers were not able to pass on their hands. Because, after the death of the II.Kılıç Arslan, the throne of the throne prevented the Seljuks from expelling the Byzantine territories.

During the Crusades IV, the Latinos established a Latin empire by conquering Constantinople in 1204. That is why the Byzantines, Trabzon-Rum and Iznik-Byzantine empires fleeing from the Crusaders have come to the fountain. The Trabzon Greeks who expanded their borders in a short period of time, were defeated by the Byzantines of Iznik and were bound to the Iznik Byzantine Empire of Zonguldak region. In 1261 the Byzantines returned to Constantinople on the turn of the Latin towards Europe, ensuring the unity of the country. The Byzantines also gave Geneviz the right to use for commercial purposes from the stands in Zonguldak province, which are in good relations with them.

By the end of the XIIIth century, the Byzantine dominance ended on the territory of the Turks, while the coasts were controlled by the Genoese seamen. Eflani, Devrek, Bartın, Safranbolu, Ulus and present Karabük lands entered the borders of the Candaroğulları Principality, which obtained its independence in 1335.

2.8. Ottoman Period

The Sultan opposes the people in order to add the territory of the region to the Ottoman border, and the Candaroğulları Principality sits beside him. The Ottomans also agreed with the Genoese in 1380 and bought the Black Sea Eregli. In 1392 Yıldırım Beyazıt added the Zonguldak region to the Ottoman lands, but the land taken back in 1402 during the Battle of Ankara against Timur remained in the Principality of Candarogullari. Sultan Çelebi Mehmet added the southern part of Zonguldak to the Ottoman Empire in the framework of the policies of providing the country integrity, while the commercial life in the coastal shoreline is in the hands of the Genovese. In 1460, Fatih Sultan Mehmet took Amasra. The Candaroğulları Principality ceases and Christian minorities in the region have to settle in Istanbul. Zonguldak and the region, which did not attract the attention of the Ottoman State in 1654, Kazakh pirates, and then to loot the newcomers who came to protect the people against the pirates. When the region, which has lost its economic and commercial significance, does not own the state, the pressure of the bandits and the shrines makes the people desperate. After 1882, the region became a center of interest for foreign capital. The production bases in the hard coal basin are operated by British, French, German, Belgian, Russian, Greek and domestic companies. On the pretext of protecting the rights of companies in the region and increasing the production of coal, French soldiers took Zonguldak on 08.03.1919 and Kdz on 08.06.1919. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. When the region, which has lost its economic and commercial significance, does not own the state, the pressure of the bandits and the shrines makes the people desperate. After 1882, the region became a center of interest for foreign capital. The production bases in the hard coal basin are operated by British, French, German, Belgian, Russian, Greek and domestic companies. On the pretext of protecting the rights of companies in the region and increasing the production of coal, French soldiers took Zonguldak on 08.03.1919 and Kdz on 08.06.1919. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. When the region, which has lost its economic and commercial significance, does not own the state, the pressure of the bandits and the shrines makes the people desperate. After 1882, the region became a center of interest for foreign capital. The production bases in the hard coal basin are operated by British, French, German, Belgian, Russian, Greek and domestic companies. On the pretext of protecting the rights of companies in the region and increasing the production of coal, French soldiers took Zonguldak on 08.03.1919 and Kdz on 08.06.1919. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. After 1882, the region became a center of interest for foreign capital. The production bases in the hard coal basin are operated by British, French, German, Belgian, Russian, Greek and domestic companies. On the pretext of protecting the rights of companies in the region and increasing the production of coal, French soldiers took Zonguldak on 08.03.1919 and Kdz on 08.06.1919. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. After 1882, the region became a center of interest for foreign capital. The production bases in the hard coal basin are operated by British, French, German, Belgian, Russian, Greek and domestic companies. On the pretext of protecting the rights of companies in the region and increasing the production of coal, French soldiers took Zonguldak on 08.03.1919 and Kdz on 08.06.1919. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. In 1919, Kdz. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies. In 1919, Kdz. Eregli occupies. The French have to withdraw from Eregli on 18.06.1920 and from Zonguldak on 21.06.1920 with the militia formed by the existing Müdafa-i Law Societies.

2.9. Alemdar Event

Alemdar is a 300-ton salvage vessel built in Denmark in 1898. The ship was confiscated in World War I, and the sea routes were given emrine. The ship is kept in Kuruçeşme ready to go at any moment under the control of its fleet. Alemdar ship which was in anchored in Istanbul was planned to be abducted to the Black Sea. The ship, 23 January 1921 ‘night secretly opened to the Black Sea and came to Ereğli the next morning. Upon the meeting of Muhittin Pasha with Ankara, an order was ordered to go to the port of Trabzon. The French who heard these developments seized the ship and wanted to take it back to Istanbul. The Alemdar ship was rescued with the struggles of the Nationalists from inside and outside the ship. This event passed on as Alemdar incident. In June of 1921, The French occupation forces left the Zonguldak after 2 years, 3 months and 12 days on June 21, 1921 with the Ottoman Bandıralı Giresun Fleet while negotiations of the Ankara Agreement started between French representatives (Franklin Bauillan) and Mustafa Kemal. During this time, the French did not encounter an armed struggle.​

Zonguldak Merkez, Bartın, Hamidiye (Devrek), Ereğli accidents, which were separate mutasarriferships in the Republican period 14 May 1920, are formed. The institutions, after the declaration of the Republic (October 29, 1923), the province of the province is Zonguldak. Zonguldak Province in 1 April 1924 and Safranbolu in 1927. In the following years, some towns of province were organized as district centers.

Çaycuma became a county in 1944, while Devrek was a province. In the same year, Ulus, which is a parish center of Safranbolu for many years, was also established as the seventh district of Zonguldak. Then, in 1953, Karabük and Eflani respectively, in 1957 Kurucaşile district center. Alaplı, Amasra and Yenice towns in July 1987, and Gökçebey town in May 1990, the number of districts in Zonguldak increased by ten.

However, in the 28.08.1991 day and 3760 numbered law, besides Bartın which is the province of Bartın, Amasra, Ulus, Kurucaşile; In the 6.6.1995 days and 550 numbered counties, the number of districts decreased to 5 with the departure of Karabük, Elfani, Safranbolu and Yenice districts. Source: Provincial Directorate Archives

The Local Food

The local cuisine is made from durum wheat flour (wheat and corn flour) products. In the forests of Zonguldak, perhaps the world’s most delicious chestnut lamb chestnut grows and boiled in chestnut water collected during the season, salting is roasted in the oven as a whole and is dried as it is evaluated in the form of kebab (carmine). Ottoman strawberry that grows only in Eregli in Turkey, located in mountain flowers in grassy vegetation, cranberries (dirt), rosehips , blackberries , basil , mint , laurel , cherry laurel , wild pear area is assessed in different ways of using the kitchen.

History is known as endless and unlimited. It is a very productive province with a city close to Istanbul.

Çaycuma Yoğurdu Kdz.Ereged Ottoman Çilegi Kdz.Ereği Pidesi Devrek Simidi-Walnut Bread White Baklava

Population

The population of Zonguldak is 596,892. 72.48% of this population lives in cities (end of 2017). The area of ​​the province is 3,342 km². There are 179 people in km². (This number is 465 in the center.) The annual population decreased by 0.11%.

According to TURKSTAT data in 2018, there are 8 districts, 25 municipalities, 176 districts and 380 villages in these municipalities.

Population growth rate is highest and lowest: Kozlu (% 1,89) – Kilimli (-% 3,08).

Economy

Zonguldak, an important feature of the province, shows an economic structure led by natural resources located on the coast. It is one of the richest illusions in terms of the underground resources. In Zonguldak, besides stone coal, there are aluminum (bauxite), iron, manganese, barite, dolomite, limestone, quartzite and chifteron deposits. Bunlardanmanganez, limestone and şiferto beds işletilmektedir.türkiye’s largest iron and steel enterprises and only integrated flat steel producer in Zonguldak ilindebulunmaktadır.il grain agricultural activities constitute the agricultural potential (wheat, barley, corn, etc.) Cultivation, fruit (nuts, berries, apples etc.) and vegetable (cottage and winter) as well as potato and sunflower industrial plants.

Transportation

Seaway : Instead of the first port built in 1866, today’s port was built in 1953. From the port of Zonguldak, which is open to passenger transportation until the 1970s, only freight transport is being carried out. There are 46 nautical miles coastline, Zonguldak and Kdz.Eregli ports, and both ports have the sea border gate feature. RO-RO flights, which started operations in 1993 and 1993, provided the development of commercial and economic relations with neighboring countries such as Russia and Ukraine. Both Zonguldak and Ereğli Ports are located in the city center.

Railway : Our railway was built in 1934-1937 and opened on 29.10.1937. There is a railway connection with Ilimizin Ankara and Karabük. Transportation to the Zonguldak station is provided by taxi, dolmuş or municipal buses, and the distance to the city center is approximately 1 km. Zonguldak Railway Station Phone: (372) 251 15 14

Highway : Our country in Zonguldak is not on a transit route along the highway routes. Those who come from İstanbul direction enter Düzce and enter the city center to follow the shoreline and Ankara to start from Yenice. Zonguldak-Devrek-Ankara highway, Zonguldak-Kdz.Eregli-Istanbul highway state road, and other roads providing provincial connections are in provincial road status. There are no highways passing through the scientific boundaries. Zonguldak-Ankara: 260 km (3 hours 43 minutes) Zonguldak-Istanbul: 332 km (4 hours 34 minutes)

Airline: The Saltukova airport, first built in 1946 for military purposes, was opened to civilian traffic for a short period in 1959. The airport, which was rebuilt in 1993 and opened to service in 1999, has an 1830 x 30 meter runway length and an apron of 2500 m². Çaycuma Airport was made ready for service in 2007 and the airport was introduced to the air traffic by being included in the International NOTAM system. At the end of 2007 the airport was transformed into an air border gate by the Ministry of Interior. Zonguldak-Germany (Düsseldorf and Dortmund) flights are being made from the airport, which is made suitable for domestic and international air transportation. The distance to Zonguldak City Center is 55.2 km and 59 minutes by car.

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