Van is located between Turkey’s largest lake and the Iranian border. Kurdish population is the majority ethnicity in the area. Please look for available information when you are applying for Turkish visa online. Your passport must not expire within 60 days of your arrival date when you are applying for Turkish Visa.
Van ( Kurdish : WAN), Turkey ‘s most populous province and a city of the nineteenth. It is located in Eastern Anatolia Region . Van is the largest province of this region in terms of population. As of the end of 2017, the population is 1,106,891 persons. Ağrı from the north , Bitlis from the west , Siirt from the southwest , Hakkari from the south , and Iran from the east . The land of Van Lake, which is the largest closed basin of Anatolia , is a fertile settlement area with fertile, flowing rivers and climate conditions. worldis still one of the oldest cities in the world.
The history of Van dates back to 7000 BC . Tilkitepe, 6 km south of Van Kalesin , and Ernis Cemetery in the north of Van Lake , excavated settlements belonging to the Chalcolithic , Bronze and Iron ages. Van’s civil history begins with Urartular le. Van was the center of the Urartu State covering today’s eastern Anatolia and Armenia and surrounding territories . Urartu weakened after the Scythian invasion, Medler from Iran destroyed by. Later in the Ahamenişl it , Alexander the Great , Seleucids , Armenians  , Parthians , Romans , Sassanids and East Romans (Greeks) has been mastered. In 644 , the Muslim Arabs conquered this region, and then the region passed to the Greeks again . The area was ruled by Abbasilere or local Armenian lords of Greeks for a long time . The Van Lake basin, where Turkmens started to settle since the 11th century ,Seljuks , then Ilhanlılara , Celayirîlere , Karakoyunlulara and Akkoyunlular . After the Safavids were removed from Eastern Anatolia in the 16th century, Ottoman rule began in Van . Up to the 20th century in Van, there were Armenians, Turks, Kurds, Arabs. Traditions developed under Ottoman and Iranian influence. Van is a remarkable geography where different cultures and communities can live together.
The city is Urartulardan . Van, the capital city of the Urartians, was at that time called Tushpa . Semiramis is the first Assyrian queen who built the city . Hurrilers were first settled in this area. During the Urartian period, the city became an imperial center. After the Urartians, the city Medler, Persians, Alexander the Great, Seleucids, Armenians, Parthians, Romans, Sassanis and Byzantines were dominant. In 675 AD, the Muslim Arabs conquered the city, then the city was again the Byzantines , the Seljuks and then the Ilkhans , the Celayirs , the Karakoyuns , the Akkoyuns , the Safeviler ,The Ottomans were judges.
It is seen that the hurrilers started from Van Lake starting from 2000 BC and they dominated a region extending to Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak into the Black Sea . In the thirteenth century BC, the central authority of the Hurri-Mitanni political entity was weakened and divided into wills. The Assyrians attempted to take control of these small principals, and in the meantime they began fighting between the Urartians and the Assyrians around the Van Lake up to West Iran. Urartu-Assyrian struggle It continued until the middle of the century, the Urartians dominated this mountainous and difficult terrain.
Van night festivals 2011
Van Castle , which has been the capital city of Urartula , is still standing with its 3000 year glory. There are rock and chamber tombs, temples, inscriptions and some structures left from the Urartians in Van Castle. Tushpa , founded by Urartu king Sarduri I and made capital city , contains the mezralars of Urartu kings, long inscriptions. The Horhor inscription is the longest inscription in the kingdom and the king Argistiat the entrance to the grave chamber of In the sanctuary of the mother-in-law, there are writings written in large blocks and this is an altar area. In İç Kale, a foundation of a temple belonging to the Urartians was found. It is not known exactly what purpose the magnificent building named Madir Bastu was built in the west of Kalenin, but it is estimated that it is a port. Excavations were carried out at Van Kalesi Höyüğü, located to the north of Kaleen.
The city of Van was built in the area surrounded by walls in the southern part of the castle until the First World War . The Armenians in the city were uprooted when the Ottoman Empire entered the war with the Russians on the Caucasus Cephalopoda. The end of the uprisings Armenians and the Russians seized the city. On May 21, 1915, the Russian General enters Yudenic Van. Here the Armenians provide the keys to the city and the castle to the general. On April 2, 1918, the Ottoman Army under the command of Ali Ihsan Pasha recaptured Van, which the Russians converted to ruin.
After this period, rebuild the city of Van on the edge of Erek Mountain. Old Van has become unusable except for one or two mosques, and the structures that survived until the day is over have been destroyed.
The remains of this city have reached the present day. There are some remnants of the walls and the only door that is firm is the Middle Gate which looks to the south. Hüsrevpaşa Külliyesi which is the work of architect Sinan consists of han, hamam, tomb, imaret, fountain and medres. The only hammam that survives in the region is the Çifte Hamam , a member of this mausoleum . The only work that is used today in Old Van is Kaya Çelebi Mosque . In the past, the Grand Mosque of Van, which is a magnificent place, has been destroyed unfortunately today, and only the minaret could survive. Red MosqueIn the same way the minarets reached the daylight and other parts were destroyed. In the city also S. Dsirvanor, S. Stephan, S. Vardan, p. Neshan is the oldest church in the city, and there are S. Paulos and S. Petros Churches, also known as the Double Church. There is also the Virgin Mary (Tiramary) church, which used to be a part of Jesus ‘ crucifix, and Baptist John the Baptist(S. Hovhannes) were destroyed. The bases of Hüsrev Pasha’s inn can be seen between Kaya Çelebi and Hüsrev Paşa Camii. The Horhor gardens to the west of the city were in the gardens of the city walls and were just in front of the Pier Gate. There are also Horhor Mosque and Madras, which are still in the vicinity of the gardens. Evliya Çelebi’s magnificent castle and old Van city is now in a state of neglect. In addition, there are traces of trails in the city and small hills are formed in the area.
Van climate is continental climate and vegetation is steppe. In Van, winter passes hard. The effect of snow is intense. The winter months are the months when the rain falls most in Van. In Van, the summer months are generally arid and hot, and a little cooler due to Van Lake’s influence. There is not much rainfall in these months, but the winds take up a lot of space. The plant cover has improved the small livestock breeding in the steppe.
In Van, agricultural land covers 10% of the face. The main products grown are; Barley, Wheat, Sugar Beet and Apple are grown. The products are harvested especially in September. Agriculture is the most important source of livelihood but is not used much.
The most important means of livestock, livestock can be used in all seasons. Small Ruminant Livestock in Van Especially in the summer he grew up in rural issued each spring to see mevcuttur.yaz animal corral in winter or at most small animals found in the stables Van alınır.türkiye.
Van is the third city in the industrial zone. Main factories: Sugar , cement , meat and meat products, milk combines and feed. Candy; Cement in Erciş is located in Edremit.
The city of Van has always had ways of working because of its strategic importance, which has come from its past and continues to this day. Two major roads coming from Southeast and North Anatolia are combined in Van and reach Iran .
This way the important of Istanbul and Ankara from coming Erzurum through pain and Ercis ‘ i connect to the passing of Van. The other way Adana ‘came from Diyarbakir through Bitlis and Tatvan ‘ s reach through to Van. This second road continues after Tatvan, partly along the shores of Van Lake . These two important highways, which converge in Van , pass through Özalp to the east of Van and reach to Iran from Kapıköy Border Gate .
The transportation network within the Van provincial border is great. Van, Ağrı , Dogubayazit , Patnos and Erciş are easily accessible. Between Hakkari and Yüksekova , it is easy to reach a certain point, but then the road is very rugged. Recently, expansion efforts have been made on this road.
The most difficult place in Van is between Çatak and Bahçesaray districts. The mountainous nature of this region makes transportation difficult. In winter, these roads are always closed from snow.
In Van, city transportation is used with private public buses and minibuses. Payment is made in cash and with Belkan Card. From 2015, new buses brought by Van Municipality are being transported.
Rail transportation such as Van’s highway transportation is also important. The 5th zone of the TCDD reaches to Baskil via Malatya . Here, one of the two divided lines reaches Tatvan via Elazığ and Muş . The ferry line from Tatvan to Van arrives at the Kapıköy Railway Station on the border with Iran via Özalp . There are points of customs control at Razi station of Iran opposite to Kapıköy. The line from Razi reaches Tehran via Tabriz .
The Vangölü Express is making a two – day voyage from Istanbul to Tatvan . Rail link between Iran and Turkey, between Istanbul-Tehran-Istanbul a day working week is provided by Trans-Asia Express and the Van-Tabriz-Van trains running between one day a week. Yet Iran with Syria rail link between Turkey is provided by passenger trains a day working week in transit through the Tehran-Damascus. The train is built between the Damascus and the Tadvan by pulleys and bed wagons, and between Van and Tehran. 
Ferit Melen Airport , located in Van, is an airport with a regional significance. Ağrı , Bitlis , Muş and Hakkari are also active in this region because of the military mobility of the region has a busy air traffic. There are regular flights from Van to Istanbul , Ankara and Izmir every day.