Samsun province has played a big part in the construction of Modern-day Turkey. It all started with Ataturk’s visit to the city in 1919. Turkish visas for UK Citizens can be completed using the online application system. Turkish visas for UK Citizens will give you a 90 day stay and has multiple entry.

Samsun province has played a big part in the construction of Modern-day Turkey. It all started with Ataturk’s visit to the city in 1919. Turkish visas for UK Citizens can be completed using the online application system. Turkish visas for UK Citizens will give you a 90 day stay and has multiple entry.

Samsun Province

Samsun , Turkey ‘s most populous province and a sixteenth city. The Black Sea Region is located in the Central Black Sea Region and is the most populous city in the region. [2] The general administration of Samsun, which has seventeen districts, is provided by the metropolitan municipality and the governorship. [3] [4] The Black Sea is surrounded by Ordu to the east , Tokat and Amasya to the south , and Corum and Sinop to the west . [5]

Samsun which is the most developed city in terms of education, health, industry, trade, transportation and economy of Black Sea Region is firstly recognized as a priority region [6] and is described as “Capital of Black Sea” and “City of Atatürk”. [7] [8] Samsun, which connects the Black Sea Region with the Central Anatolia Region and Eastern Anatolia Region by road, is also a port city and a logistic center with a wide hinterland. [9]

Settlement history dating back to 60,000 years BC [10] amongst the first community settled here from 5000-3500 BC Samsun Kaskians . [11] The city, which lived after the Hittite period after the Persians , changed hands continuously between 1182 and 546 BC, and from this year it entered Persian rule. [12] After the Persians, Samsun, which had Pontus , Roman , Byzantine sovereignty, became a Genoese column after them . [13] In this period, the Principality of the DanishmendSamsun was not surrounded by the city and a new city with the name of “Muslim Samsun” was established right next to the city. [14] During the reign of Mehmed II , two Samsun cities continued to exist, during which both cities joined and joined the Ottoman state . [15] Between the years 1422-1428 the Ottoman domination [16] Samsun again became the Ottoman Empire in 1923 and the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey until it has maintained this status.

Stretching from Turkey to the establishment and May 19, 1919 Mustafa Kemal, the output Samsun due to the initial stop of a process that began with a special position in Samsun “May 19 City” as is referred to [17] [18] and May 19 Atatürk Commemoration, Youth and Sports Day is home to. [19] It was also celebrated in Samsun as “Gazi Day” since 1926 on 19 May, which was declared official holiday in 1938. [20] Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s 19th birthday was given to him as a birthday


of the headquarters building of the Samsun Maritime Guard.

On 28 May and 10 June 1915, the Russian Empire bombed Samsun along with other Ottoman port cities along the Black Sea coast, making this city a difficult situation. The greatest loss was the loss of a residence , a building belonging to a russum , a customs warehouse, a hut and a gas storage depot. [105] In addition to transportation vehicles such as a large number of lifeboats, bollards and engines, various cinste ships and the Shimendiffer İskelesi, Customs İskelesi, Gazhane İskelesi have been destroyed; Kılıçdede Neighborhood, Gazhane, Kumcağız neighborhoods were damaged. [105] Russians municipal scaffolds, daggers, Greeks, Armenian neighborhoods, wheat markets and freighters on the harbor were targeted in a more extensive attack in July.[105] Many piers and warehouses also received nasipleri from the bombing. [105]

The Russians who attacked again in 1916 targeted Samsun Port [120] . On May 25, 1917, the aircraft belonging to the Kingdom of Romania made inspection flights over the city. [121]

Although the activities of the Greek Cypriot gangs have diminished in recent years with Russian bombardments, they have not stopped completely.

During the Mondros Armistice and the War of Independence

The Mondros Armistice , which was signed by the Ottoman Empire defeated from World War I , made all sides of the country open to the occupation. [122] In the ensuing period, the Ottoman government wanted to carry out a policy of reestablishing social peace and territorial integrity. [123] The Greeks of the Black Sea claimed that they were facing massacre and demanding territory. [124] These political activities of the Greeks were influential in the western world and created the perception that the Greeks and Armenians in Anatolia were in need of help. [125] The Greek kingdom demanded that the region be invaded, citing the question of public order in the Black Sea. On top of this, responsible for the police on the shores of the Black SeaThree of the British Empire and the French Republic received a war ship by sending a war ship. [126]

Statement that the Samsun Armenians had left the Istanbul Armenian Patriarchate and declared their commitment to the Ankara Government .

The Greeks, who had been attacking the Turkish peasants before and during the First World War, continued their attacks during the War of Independence in order to realize Megali Idea. The city’s exits are being held by armed gangs, fireworks are being opened from nearby relatives, guns were being thrown every night from the Greek graveyard next to the Hamdi Pasha Farm, which is located around the present Farm Caddesi. [127] The Turks were waiting for the army to guard against these attacks , which they [128] called what they call “gawr persecution” . [129] In addition, the Greeks celebrated Greece’s independence day, April 7, by giving conferences in Samsun and showing models that depict Greek culture. [127]

In April 1918, Germanos Karavengelis gathered the gang leaders and gave them various responsibilities, and the gangs continued to operate more systematically. [130] Gangs working in various ways such as cutting roads, riddling villages, collecting ransoms, robbing posters, were also using torture methods such as spotting, balding and abdominal tearing. [131]

On March 9, 1919, Mustafa Asım Bey and Samsun Mutasarrifi Ibrahim Ethem Bey, commander of Division 15, declared martial law in the city, and the city was occupied by the British military detachment of 200 people, citing the Mondros Armistice conditions. [124] The occupation forces, which were welcomed by the Greeks [132] , settled in the eight mosques in Ilyasköy, some of the ANZAK forces of the later 150 people settled in the Sultanate of Samsun building. [124] Due to the raids of the Greek Cypriots and occupation forces filling up the winters, some of the soldiers of the tribe have escaped, and since most of them have been demobilized, the Samsun division has decreased by 4/3.[124] On February 1, 1920, the peoplegathered in front of the Samsun City Hall to protest the occupations, while in the same time the Greeks, who celebrated the approach of American war ships to the Samsun Port in addition to the land units, occupied the sehremanet building and the events grew. [133]

April 30, 1919 at the 9th Army inspector assigned to the [134] Mustafa Kemal , reached Samsun on May 19 . [135] Mustafa Kemal, who was put in charge of fulfilling his duty, was found in some studies. As a result of these investigations, it came to the conclusion that the Greek Cypriot gangs attacked the Muslim people and that the local administrators could not intervene in these events with the foreign states involved. [136] Canik then ordered the mutasarrif to take the task and to intervene directly in the region, irrespective of foreign soldiers. [136]

The national excitement put forth by Erzurum Congress and Sivas Congress , which was headed by Mustafa Kemal after his departure from Samsun, also showed its influence in Samsun and Samsun Müdafaa-i Law Society was founded. [137] Even though the societies named ” Cemiyet-i Hayriye-i Islamiyah” [138] , Prudential and Zabitan Society [139] , Black Sea Turks Defense of Rights Society [140] and Oyama Organization [141] [142] , among which only the Govemment has made valuable work. [137]

On May 7, 1920, Şefik Avni Pasha, who came to Samsun , undertook the command of the 15th Division and was rearmed partly with the help of the Grand National Assembly. [143] Samsun Maritime Guard’s Detachment was established on July 10, 1920 under the Umur-u Bahriye Branch and started fighting against the Greek gangs. [144] In the late 1920s, the ever-growing platoon became a full-time battalion. [144] In the spring of 1921, when the Greek Cypriot gangs and the Samsun Maritime Guard platoon entered violent clashes, Turkish gang leader Topal Osman came to Samsun. [145]With the withdrawal of the British and French forces from the city, the Samsun Maritime Guard Band, Topal Osman and the 15th Division launched a major counterattack against the Greek Cypriots, and they had a great blow to the gangs that attacked the Turkish villagers. [143] Upon the movement of the 15th Division on the west ceiling on May 17, 1921, the 10th Division was formed in Samsun, and Samsun Military Service Director, Lieutenant Colonel İsmail Hakkı Bey was appointed as the Deputy. [143] During the reign of Ismail, conflicts with the Greek gangs continued. Then , the division, which was taken over by Cemil Cahit Bey , destroyed the Greek gangs around Samsun in a great moment. [143] After the destruction and distribution of the majority of the Greek gangsSamsun Independence Court began trial, 79 people were sentenced to imprisonment, 5 people were sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for 5 years and 17 people were sentenced to 10 years imprisonment until the end of mobilization. [146] [147]

The Samsun Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti organized a rally in Sathane Meydanı on August 30, It was decided that the meeting would end with the speeches of the rally attendants and the telegram of loyalty to the Ankara Government . [148] In January 6th, 1922 in Samsun Turkish Orthodox Society Spiritual Leader Pope invited to Samsun by Atnas Turkish Orthodox Spiritual Leader Pope Eftim’s have also read a statement by the participation and have declared their commitment to the Turkish Orthodox Ankara. [149] In the same year, Samsun Armenians also gave a statement to the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbuland they are connected to Ankara. [150] [151]

Turkish marines trying to bring weapons and ammunition from the Soviet Union with a few small ships in their hands in the Black Sea were having difficulties in dealing with Greek hunting boots and war ships. It has been decided that Greeks should seize one of the major trade vessels in the Black Sea for the ships who need bigger vessels, in line with the plan of Trabzon Maritime Naval Commander Fahri Bey. [152] According to the plan, the Enosis cargo ship loading the Soviets at Novorossiysk Harbor would be stopped and confiscated by two small Turkish shipwrecks and brought secretly to Trabzon. [152] The plan was passed on the night of April 26, 1922. After several hours of chase, Enosis, 500 thousand pounds in the material with gold and seized with the name of Trabzon and participated in the Turkish shipping fleet. [152] The Kuva-yi in the Black Sea, which only transports to that day, the Nationalist mariners have begun to strike the Greek forces through these commercial vessels. [152] The Greeks planned Samsun bomber as retaliation .

Enosis, a Greek cargo vessel seized in 1922 and named Trabzon .

On June 7, 1922, Georgios Averof and Kilkis armored against sabaha , two panther class destroyers, two auxiliary cruisers and four small mine scanner ships came to the Greek fleet Samsun. [151] The Samsun Maritime Guard Band of Defense measures and the 10th Division were put into ammunition stacks, and artillery battalions were placed. [152] The Greeks were to be assigned to Samsun Mutasarrif Faik Bey by American vessels moored at Samsun Port as observers at around 10.00 pm [153]gave a letter of protest, and the letter was delivered to the court. In the protest, Samsun was declared to be a military base and lost its city characteristics and was requested to be delivered to the city. This request was rejected as a result of the telegram made with the Government of the Republic of Turkey and Samsun was given an answer that if it was an open city and if it was bombed, it would belong to the Kingdom of Greece. [154] The bombardment began at 15.30 with government buildings, coastal warehouses and marine vessels, Russian oil tanks west of the city and tobacco warehouses owned by American and Dutch merchants, and Turkish tablets responded with artillery batteries on the beach. [152]During two hours of bombardment, Greek ships used more than 500 rounds, 4 soldiers died and 3 soldiers were injured. It also burned 4.170 tin of oil, 68.368 kg of gasoline, 900 kilograms of spirits and military food warehouse; 48 houses, 3 shops, government buildings, customs buildings, Canik Surp Nigoğayos Armenian Church and orphanage were demolished and 16 fishing boats on the coast were damaged. [155] Two hours later , with the withdrawal of the Georgios Averof armor, the other ships were withdrawn and abandoned the area. [152]

Grand National Assembly of Turkey collected after bombardment results June 12 and 16 June 1922 meeting has decided to declare war deportation of Greeks in the area of the entire Black Sea coast. [156] Yelkencioğulları, one of the leading families of the Greek Cypriot gang in Samsun, went to Istanbul with the permission of the wealthy Greek Ministry of Internal Affairs in addition to the Andavallıoğulları and Enfiyecioğulları. [156] Following the Colonel Veysel Bey of Trabzon, who was appointed as the 10th Division Commander, the administrators who organized the Greek gangs were arrested. Mustafa Bey was appointed instead of Colonel Veysel Bey, who was appointed to the western side of Trabzon, and great cracks were struck at the time of the Greek Cypriots. [157]10th Division Brigade Commander Colonel Hafez Zühtü Bey was cleared of the gangs of Samsun and the region by clearing the gangs around Çarşamba and Ünye. [157] With the Turkish victory, the Megali Idea country was involved in history, the 15th Division on the western side was returned to Samsun and the 10th Division was distributed.


The climate of Samsun varies in coastal and inland areas due to the location and geography of the city. Coastline Although the summers are hot and humid in the summertime and the winters are cool under the influence of the Black Sea climate , the inner parts are continental under the influence of the Akdağ and Canik Mountains , and cold, rainy and snowy summers are winter. [190] In the coastal area, snow is very rare in winter, but in winter, transportation may be delayed due to snow. The lowest temperature average of the city is 11 ° C and the highest average temperature is 18.2 ° C.

Local Food

The Samsun kitchen carries traces of Black Sea, Anatolia, Balkan and Caucasus. [254] Soup, pot dishes, and pickles are made from plants unique to the region. Blackwine soup, filling and roasting; while beans are often consumed with pickles and dips. [254] The stew made of corn and wheatgrass is the most consumed cereals with soup made from the flour. [254]

Samsun pides which gained popularity throughout the country together with bakeries opened by Bafra and Termeli entrepreneurs in major cities, especially in Istanbul, are the best known food of the city. Traditional meals are also called tirit, which can be made with goose, turkey, duck or chicken. In addition to this, in addition to the weddings, usually made at the weddings, Wednesday swell, Samsun simidi, corn soup and yoghurt soup are also known foods of the city.

The most consumed seafood in Samsun is the tavası, which is made with steamed, pilaf, ekmek and pilava.

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