Sakarya is a city located in Marmara region and a short journey from Istanbul. The official name for Republic of Turkey visa also known as the e-Visa for Turkey. Republic of Turkey visa is issued and regulated by the Turkish government

Sakarya , Turkey ‘s most populous province and a city of the twenty-second.

According to TURKSTAT data at the end of 2016, the population of the province is 976,948. There are 16 districts and municipalities, 665 in these municipalities. [2nd]

The Marmara Region ‘s Çatalca-Kocaeli Department is located in the area.

Karadeniz in the north of Sakarya , Kocaeli , Bursa in the west , Düzce in the east and Bolu and Bilecik in the south . The Sakarya River flows into the Black Sea in Karasu province of Sakarya .

Sakarya economy in agriculture has an important place. Hendek , Karasu and Kocaali districts have hazelnut breeding. [3] Also corn is done in agriculture. Sakarya’da industry has begun to develop in recent times. Industrial establishments established in recent years have further increased this industrialization . Sakarya is the fifth largest city of the Marmara Region after Istanbul , Bursa , Kocaeli and Balikesir with a total population approaching one billion .

History

The history of the Hittites and Sakarya, the first to establish the Anatolian union , begins. As a result of internal confusion, the Phrygians dominated the area after the divided Hittites . When the Phrygian domination came to an end, the region was overtaken by the Lydians . In the 6th century BC the Persian Empire destroyed the Lydian Kingdom and dominated Anatolia. King Alexander the Great of Macedonia dominated Anatolia in the 4th century BC by defeating the Persians. After the death of Alexander the Great, the King of Bitinah announced his independence and proclaimed his dominion in the region of Sakarya. In the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire put an end to the Kingdom of Bitinia and put it into the territory of the region [5] .

When the Roman Empire was divided into two (MS 365), the Bitina region remained a Byzantine Empire . Islamic armies who came to Istanbul to conquer the region conquered the region. These dominances are not permanent. Occasionally Sasanlar also organized raids in the region .

After Malazgirt Square Battle , Kutalmışoğlu Süleyman took control of all Anatolia including Shah Sakarya. Iznik ‘s capital that Turkey Seljuk Empire was founded. In the First Crusade, he left Iznik and moved the capital to Konya . The Sakarya aiha again entered the control of Byzantium.

Thanks to the historical information of excavations and finds made; in the region around 300 BC to 395 years between the capital Nicomedia ( Izmit ) of the Romans in Bithynia province , there were [6] . Certain findings in the Kandira, Kaynarca, Hendek, Karapürçek and Tarakli indicate that the region lived under the rule of the Bitinans just before and after the millennium. Seif were built in the region, Harmantepe , opposite to, Pasha, Çobankal to, Mekece the castle, I. Justinian ‘s 562 years of Sakarya River, built on the Beşköprü are important historical ruins.

Ottoman period

The impeller made in 1894 to give water to Adapazari from the Wheel .

Towards the end of the 13th century, Konur Alp restored Turkish dominance by conquering the present Adapazarı Basin. [7] In honor of these conquests built during the reign of Orhan Gazi , Orhan Mosques were built in and around Sakarya on behalf of the sultan . Firstly nomadic Turkic tribes from western Turkestan and Azerbaijan founded villages and cities around them. Adapazarı is located on a piece of land in the form of a peninsula between the Sakarya River and the Çark Water that emerges from Lake Sapanca . A document from 1563 and 1581This is the first documentary that tells the history of a ferman city, written in the name of Akyazı Ada Kadılığı in the year of the year, [7]

Because the Adapazari region is near the capital, everything in production was sent to Istanbul. The environment around Sakarya was especially important in terms of agriculture, livestock products and lumber. Istanbul, Izmit and Kefken, which are close to the shipyards, have produced a lot of timber [8] .

Karamürsel Alp from the Ottoman commanders greeted the need for timber of the shipyard in Karamürsel from the forests between Karasu and Adapazarı. Lumber Estimation was established in Adapazarı to follow timber works. The obtained logs were transported to Karadeniz via Sakarya River and then to Tersane-i Amireye to Istanbul . Shipbuilding work was given to Karasu . Not all of the logs were sent to the chief, but the ship was built and repaired at the mouth of Sakarya (New neighborhood). Wood pieces of Sakarya to Tophaneye cannons were prepared and sent [8] .

Evliya Çelebi refers to the sea ​​of ​​trees from the Sakarya region . A French tourer visiting the area A.De. Moustier wrote in 1862: “Adapazari is a city of 10,000 people on the edge of the river, walnut trees are plentiful, but new ones are not being planted instead of cuts, so Adapazari will remain without trees.” In Adapazari, walnut wood pistols and rifles were made in those years [8] .

Second Beyazit Bridge : The bridge from Ottoman time is important in terms of history. In the town of Alifuatpaşa in the province of Geyve II. It was built by Bayezid . The bridge built on the Sakarya River has 15 eyes, the length is 196.5 and the width is 5.5 meters.

War of Independence

Scalloped date Honeymoon Mansion

Sakarya museum; Mustafa Kemal ‘s house where he stayed during his visit to Adapazarı .

The Adapazari region is the War of Independence; Ali Fuat Cebesoy , Hasan Cavit Bey, Sirri Bey, the Circassian Said Bey, Metoza Hüseyin Bey, Koçza Mahmut Bey, Abdurrahman Bey, Governor Tahir Bey Cevat Bey Kazim captain Khaled Mulla and Stringless Recep contributed with heroes such as [9] .

Captain Ramiz, Captain Rauf, was given to Dr. Raik in the district to set up the first detachment. They fulfilled this duty with the contributions of Meto Hussein and Mehmet Bey. Geyve, Hendek and Adapazarı’da Kuva-yı National Organization was established at the same time. The leading figures in the region were telegraphic to Ankara attaching to Mustafa Kemal [9] .

The Turkish militia was formed to combat the Armenian and Greek Cypriots in the region . Kazim forces around Akyazı , Hendek and Sapanca , Halit Molla in Kaynarca region, Rape around the Kandıra and Karasu , and Armenian and Greek gangs. Anzavur Ahmet attacked to capture the Geyve Bosphorus through Adapazarı during the third uprising , and they were subjected to misconduct by Circassian Ethem . Anzavur, who captured Hendek, was sprayed by Ethem [9] .

The 11th Greek Division occupying Izmit invaded Sapanca and Kırkpınar on 24 March and Adapazarı on 25 March. In order to stop Greek progress, the national forces burned the chickens and stone bridges on the Sakarya River . The first Greek troops passing through the river were repulsed by militia forces [9] .

In order to save the region from occupation, a new corps was established and Colonel Kasım Bey was appointed to his head. The Greek forces started to gather in Adapazari to withdraw towards Bursa. Measures were taken to prevent the city from being burned during the withdrawal. On the morning of June 21st, the National Forces entered Adapazari early in three arms. Small conflicts saved the city. The Kazim, the Captain Osman and the forces of Molla Khalid provided the order in the city [9] .

It is celebrated as the 21st of June Freedom Day in Sakarya for the emancipation of the occupation from March 25th until June 21st

Climate

Sakarya province on the Black Sea coast of the Black Sea climate in Turkey , Marmara type in the southern part of the Mediterranean climate is effective. When hazelnuts are grown in the north, fruit gardens, some of which are olive gardens in the southern provinces, are widespread. The Samanlı mountains and the Keremali mountains, located to the south of the provincial center, prevent the Climate effect from reaching the south. The southern part of the province reaches Mediterranean air masses in the direction of İznik Lake . Precipitation decreases from north to south: 1000 mm in Karasu, 840 mm in Center, 600 mm in Geyve. The dominant wind direction is KKB. The relative humidity average is 72% [17]. The annual temperature average is 14.2 ° C. January temperature is not too cold (5.9 ° C), July temperature is not high (23.3 ° C), annual temperature difference is low (17.4 ° C), Black Sea climate is affected. Seasonal distribution of rainfall: 31% in winter, 26% in autumn, 22% in spring, 21% in summer. This distribution reflects the characteristics of the Black Sea precipitation regime. 95.9% of the rainfall is normal, and 3.7% is the torrential form. It is rainy on the 133th day of the year

Economy

Sakarya, Turkey’s prosperity in the years 1987-1998 has been involved in growing provinces. Moreover, these development statistics do not fully reflect the Gross National Product produced every year in Sakarya. Our company operates in Sakarya and is located on a large scale in Turkey’s largest 500 provider. Since the management centers of the large establishments (Highway, Soil Group, Pilsa, Yazakisa, Goodyear, Noksel) producing in our province are not in Sakarya, the GNP they produce is not seen in the annual production values ​​of İlhan Province.

Sectoral distribution of economy in Sakarya in 2012 is as follows: Agriculture: 17%, industry: 24%, services: 59%. [17]

In Sakarya (2012), national income is $ 14,064, employment rate is 47.7% and unemployment is 10.2%. Socio-economic to the development rankings Turkey according 18.s is 33 in per capita GDP ranking. Turkey has a share in GDP of 1.1. [8] As a province that increased its exports by 26% in 2013, it has joined the list of exporting countries with over $ 1 billion. Sakarya was the 9th most exporting city. [55] According to 2012 data, 1.8 billion exports and 1.1 billion dollars were imported. The import coverage rate for exports for 2012 was 159%, so they sold more than the provincial imports abroad.

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