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History

It is observed that Kastamonu has some unbroken chronology from the Old Stone Age period as a result of some archaeological excavations and surface surveys . Due to the lack of research on this area, information on Kastamonu is also inadequate especially for early history. In a limited number of investigations carried out in this region of the province of the Old Stone Age with the period of Neolithic , Bronze Age and the early Bronze Age suggests that an uninterrupted period until the settlement occurs.

Archaeological surface surveys in the provinces of Cide and Şenpazar have recently been found in settlements in the Middle Stone Age.

Preliminary date

The known past of Kastamonu begins with the Hittite Empire . This land, which was dominated by Phrygia and Lydia Kingdoms after the Hittites, passed through the Persians in the 4th century BC . In the 4th century BC , along with Alexander the Great , Kastamonu lands were added to Macedonia.

The Pontus Kingdom , which seized the region after Alexander, was abolished by the Romans in the 1st century BC. Kastamonu, which had been in the borders of the Roman Empire for many years, joined the Byzantine Empire like the whole of Anatolia by the division of the empire in 395 AD .

Roman and Byzantine period

Today, it is located in a region called Paphlagonia (Pophlagonia) , which includes Kastamonu and its surroundings and on behalf of the Romans .

The time when the Romans were the provincial center of Taşköprü (Pophlagonia) Kastamonu is a small town and has begun to develop during the Byzantine period and especially during the rule of the city, the hometown of the Comnens descent from the imperial dynasties . A castle was built here at the time of this dynasty and it was called “Kastra Komneni” in the meaning of the Comnens ‘ Castle [29] . Over time (“Kastamonu”, “Kastamonu”) became the present shape of this balm as the Turkmens settled in the region.

The Seljuk and Ottoman periods

Kastamonu was the leader of the Turks who escaped from Turkestan and Iran in front of the Mongol invasion and the cities most affected by the second wave of immigration. Many Turkish boys who could not hold up against the Mongols in Central Anatolia took shelter in the northern part of Ilgaz Mountains , that is Kastamonu. Twenty-four dormitories hold around the neck as almost all Oguz Kastamonu, Alp , Alpagut , Danişmendli , Kipchak , Karluk , Çiğil , plunder the Turkish tribes settled in as the Kastamonu. [30] In Kastamonu, many of them are still alive , such as Kayı , Bayat , Çavundur ,Place names such as Kınık , Iğdir , Afşar , Kıyık , Büğdüz , Bayındır , Çepni , Karaevli express very well the nature of the Oguz settlement. In the 1260s , Ibn Sa’d gave this city the name ” Capital of the Turkmen ” [ citation needed ] . According to his record, in those days 100 thousand tent people were piled up in Kastamonu region. [31]

Kastamonu first time pass into the hands of the Turks Danişmentliler time Danishmend Ahmad Ghazi , the son Gümüştekin Veterans era of the “1105” has been realized. Nearly 100 years ago, the city and its surroundings, which had been under the administration of the Danişment, had been restored by the Byzantine Empire for 15 years and were taken over by Seljuk commander Hüsamettin Çobanbey under the order of Anatolian Seljuq Sultan Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat in 1213 .

The army under the control of Şemsettin Yaman Candar, who was appointed to the second time by the Mongols for the division , went to Kastamonu in 1292 and misled Muzafferettin Yavlak Arslan union and killed himself. Mahmutbey, the son of Muzafferettin Yavlak Arslan, entered the fight to get his father’s revenge, and Şemsettin Yaman started to drive Candar from here to the west. After the death of Şemsettin Yaman Candar, Kastamon was re-occupied by Süleyman Pasha in 1309, his territories were enlarged to establish the ” Candaroğulları Principality ” and the Shepherds ended their domination.

In the campaigns against the Byzantine during the establishment of the Ottoman state, the Turks settled in Kastamonu gave an intense support to the Ottoman Principality.

The famous traveler Ibn Batuta , who visited Kastamonu in the 1333s ,

” Kastamonu is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in Anatolia … I have seen a cheaper place in this country than in any other country. ” [32] , which illuminated the size of the city and the availability of living conditions.

After Isfendiyarbey, Kastamonu, also known as “İsfendiyaroğulları”, became an important scholar and cultural center until the Ottoman administration in 1460 , educated many scholars and maintained this characteristic in Ottoman times.

Kastamonu participated in the Ottoman State after Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror took this city with Sinop in 1460 and removed Candaroğulları Beyliği from the middle .

During the Ottoman period, Kastamonu remained bound to Bolu Province for a long time and Bolu Sanjak was ruled by the ruling. It was transformed into a state center by Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent .

National Struggle and Republican period

Kastamonu National (National) During the struggle, it has made great benefit because it is the most reliable region in terms of logistical support. Food, clothing, money, ammunition and weapons were sent to Ankara via Kastamonu starting from İnebolu, especially with the road called İstiklal Yolu. And in the War of Independence , ildir sent the most soldiers to the front.

Kastamonu, which has never been subjected to enemy invasion since its passage to the Turkish sovereignty, is one of the most martyrs in the Çanakkale and Independence War. The province gave 2,527 martyrs during the Battle of Çanakkale. The famous ” Çanakkale Türküsü ” belongs to Kastamonu’lu Aşık Yorgansız Hakkı.

Climate

There are two types of climate in the city. Provinces in the north of the Black Sea climate in Turkey is seen, in the southern part of the province’s continental climate is observed. The Küre Mountains , which run parallel to the shore , prevent the Black Sea climate from being seen inside.

The distribution of precipitation in Kastamonu is generally uniform. In winter, precipitation accounts for 18% of annual precipitation and summer precipitation accounts for 27%. A large part of the precipitation falls in spring. Frequent rainfall is observed in the coastal areas in general. While the minimum rainfall in the province is in December-February period, the most rainfall occurs between April-May.

The annual average temperature in the center of Kastamonu is 9.8 ° C. With this average, Kastamonu has a lower temperature average than other neighboring ones, which is the morphological structure. According to other neighbors in Kastamonu, two types of climate are effective instead of single climate type.

The highest temperature at 42.2 ° C in the province is 30 July 2000, while the temperature at Kastamonu is -23.7 ° C and the lowest temperature is 15 January 1950. The highest amount of rainfall per day in Kastamonu occurred on May 3, 1953, with a corresponding decrease of 104.7 kg / m² in history.

Economy

The Kastamonu economy is in a position based on extensive scale of agriculture. Industry has been developing in recent years in the province, and Organized Industrial Zones are located in several places in the province. One of the most forest-rich areas in the position of Turkey in Kastamonu, forestry is an advanced status.

Agriculture

In Kastamonu province, 59% of the land is forested and shrubby, long and hard passing of winters, rugged terrain, first class agricultural land, inadequacy of irrigation facilities and variability in crop production. The scarcity of agricultural land restricts the production of field crops, and late spring frosts make it difficult for the fruit to be economically viable. Wheat , barley , corn , rice , chickpeas , sugar beet , potatoes and garlic are the most common crops in the province . As fruits, grapes , apples and plums ,cherry and pear , while walnut has been increasing in recent years .

Kastamonu terms garlic is an important product, approximately one quarter of Turkey’s production is carried out in this city. The taste and quality of Kastamonu garlic can give better results than the garlic grown in other regions because of the selenium mineral found in the provincial lands . There is a geographical registration certificate of the garlic produced in Ilin Taşköprü district.

Kastamonu has high potential for organic farming as well as for the existence of natural areas and sustainable agriculture for organic agriculture. For this reason, local brand products such as garlic, rice, green whey, and bulgogi are added to organic farming for added value.

It is a common position among the society in animal husbandry as well as agricultural activities. Especially cattle breeding is an important activity. Performed breeding cattle , buffalo milk of cattle such as are utilized in meat and leather. In recent years, bovine animals have been used frequently in the practice of agricultural activities. In addition to this, sheep and goat breeding is also carried out. Apart from these, poultry farming and beekeeping can be seen widely. Yl throughout 2013 according to the data 315,069 bovine, ovine 132,059 290,000 There are 56,922 beehives and poultry. [47]

Industry

The Kastamonu industry has been developing in recent years and with this development, it offers important opportunities for investors. Within the industrial structure, sectors related to agriculture and forest products are at the forefront. There are three organized industrial zones throughout the city in order to enable small and medium sized companies to produce each other and in a complementary way . These are located in the center of the province and the other two in the districts of Tosya and Seydiler .

The commercial district of the province experienced the most intense life in Central , Tosya , Stone Bridge and Inebolu districts.

According to the data of the year 2013 , exports were realized in the province in the level of $ 110 million and the highest share in export products was non-ferrous metal ores. Apart from this, waste and scrap, plastic products, apparel, sand, clay, wooden plate (plywood, chipboard, plate, chipboard), mine, stone stove and construction machines are among exported products. =

According to the data of the same year, imports in the level of Kastamonu totaled $ 29 million . Among the imported products, there are products such as electric motors, generators, artificial and synthetic fibers, yarns and woven textiles, synthetic rubber and plastic materials, while the majority of lifting and transporting benches constitute them. =

Mining

The province also has certain underground mines. Kastamonu has reserves of mercury , quartzite , chromite , feldspar , bauxite and marble mines , which are copper mines throughout the province . Besides these, possible reserves of iron , manganese , hard coal , lignite and graphite mines are estimated. =

The province, especially the copper mines located in the Küre province, constitute one of the most important income sources of the province.

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