Istanbul is the most populated and the most historic province of Turkey.  To visit Istanbul, visa must be obtained after review check on your eligibility for obtaining visa. Please ensure to make application for your visa online, while do print a copy the approved version your visa. Some people do refer to Istanbul visa but the correct version of your visa is called Turkey visa


Istanbul is a world city located at the intersection of European and Asian continents extending from the settlement date with the excavations at Yenikapi to the port in 8500 years, with a city history of about 3.000 and a capital of 1600 years. [35] The city ​​has hosted different civilizations and cultures throughout the ages and has maintained a cosmopolitan and metropolitan structure with various religions, languages ​​and races for centuries and has become a unique mosaic in the historical process. One of the rare settlements in the world that has managed to stay in power and to be central to all areas for long periods of time, Istanbul is a world capital of the past.

The history of Istanbul dates back to three hundred thousand years ago. The excavations in the Yarımburgaz Cave on the edge of Küçükçekmece Lake revealed the first traces of human culture. [36] Neolithic and Chalcolithic people are thought to have lived around the lake during this period. The excavations in various periods revealed the Lower Paleolithic Age near Dudullu and the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic ages in the vicinity of Ağaçlı.​

Galata Tower from the most important historical structures of Istanbul , 2010.

In 2008, Istanbul metro for the Marmaray tunnel during excavation Neolithic ‘s take the city encountered the remains of the BC 6500’l year, [38] [39] [40] In excavations in Fikirtepe’de the Anatolian side of the Copper Age ‘ s there remained remains dating back to 5500-3500 BC. [41] Furthermore, Kadıköy from Phoenician found remains of. Traklar founded the city of Semistra near the city in the 13th century BC and the 11th century BC . [42] In the time of King Lygos SarayburnuAn Acropolis was established where the present Topkapi Palace is located . Greeks from Megara in 685 BC set up a colony here, Byzantium was founded in 667 BC by King Byzas . [43] Kent Roman Empire, when mastered, the city’s name Septimius Severus in the name of his son briefly by Augusta Antonina earlier, [44] followed by the Emperor Constantine it the city was the Roman Empire ‘s was declared the capital. Meanwhile, Nova Roma and in 337, the death of Emperor Constantine I was converted to Constantinople .

​This period covered between 324 and 1453. After Constantine I conquered the city and made it the capital of the Roman Empire, the city was also the administrative center of Rome’s east. The Roman population increased significantly in this period, including the migration of Roman nobility. In this period; the city has expanded considerably with a new architecture. A hippodrome of 100,000 people ( Sultanahmet Square ), as well as ports and water facilities were built.

In the period of Constantinus the city was named Nova Roma dese; On May 11, 330, the name of the city became Constantinople. Constantine, who founded Hagia Sophia , the world’s largest cathedral in 360, and thus changed the religion of the Roman Empire to Christianity . The first break with the western belief in Pagan Roman religion also began in this period. Although, Beginning with the death of the Byzantine Empire Theodosius I ; The Byzantine Empire Constantine regarded him as a Byzantine emperor because of his respect for Christianity; Until the collapse of 1453, the 10th Emperor became the more famous Constantine. The role of Istanbul in this period was quite strategic; It was a gate between Europe and Asia. Hereby,trade , culture and diplomacy . In this period, the name of the city was “Poli” (city). [45]

After the collapse of Western Rome in 476; The vast majority of the Romans in the Western Roman Empire migrated here and the capital of the Byzantine Empire became Istanbul. After the plague epidemic, which caused the death of half the population in 543; the city was rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Justinian I.

The city ​​was attacked by Sasan and Avarlar in the year 700 ; The 800s were attacked by Bulgarians and Arabs in the years, and by the Russians and Bulgarians in the year 900s.

But; The most devastating among the attacks happened in 1204. By the Crusaders ; The Fourth Crusade ‘nde City was seized in 1204 and plundered; the vast majority of the people fled from the city; poor and turned into a city in the wreckage. For this reason, the Latins growing in Western Rome; The differences between the Catholic Christianity and the Orthodox Christianity in Byzantium are incompatible. After this period, in 1261 Paleologos Dynasty; VIII. Mikhail recaptured the city and ended the period of the Latins.

Byzantine, which gradually shrank after this period; It was begun to be besieged by the Ottoman Empire after 1391; eventually passed on to the Ottoman Empire in 29 May 1453 . The conquest of Istanbul symbolizes the end of the Middle Ages in the history of the world .

After the capture of the Ottoman Empire; After the establishment of the Topkapi Palace and the Grand Bazaar , many schools and baths were opened. It was a cosmopolitan society where Jews , Christians, and Muslims lived together in the city ​​where people from all over the world and the Empire moved . Remains of the Byzantine period, the old buildings and the fortifications were repaired. [46] Fifty years after the conquest; One of the largest cities in the world, Istanbul is known as ” Little Doomsday ” 14 September 1509 Istanbul After the earthquake (claimed to be 8 magnitude); Thousands of buildings were destroyed with 45 days of aftershocks, and many people lost their lives.[47]

In 1510; Sultan II. Beyazid ; With 80,000 people working, the city rebuilt. The great majority of the works still exist today. During the period of Süleyman I, whom Mimar Sinan ‘ın Camieri and other buildings founded ; architecture and the arts. During the Tulip Revolution ; Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa Since 1718; set up the fire department , opened the first printing house and built factories. After the Tanzimat Fermanı which was declared on November 3, 1839 , westernization process accelerated and many innovations took place in the field. [48]

Bridge over the Golden Horn ; Karakoy ‘E tunnels , railways, maritime transport in the city, municipal organizations, it appeared the area through the establishment of a modern city hospital Istanbul, 1894 again saw a great loss with Üçyüzo the earthquake. In the end of World War I , on November 13, 1918, the Entente States navy was also occupied. [49] Istanbul’s 2500-year-old capital city ended on October 29, 1923.


Istanbul, Turkey ‘s largest city and former political as the capital . Due to a crossroads of land and sea trade routes and strategic location it has been the center of economic life in Turkey. The city is also the largest industrial center. It meets 20% of industrial employment in Turkey. It has about 38% industrial area. Istanbul and the surrounding areas are in this area; fruit , olive oil , silk , cotton and tobacco . In addition, food industry, textile production, petroleum products , rubber ,metal goods , leather , chemistry , medicine , electronics , glass , technological products, machinery , automotive , transportation tools , paper and paper products and alcoholic drinks are among the important industrial products of the city. According to a study by Forbes magazine , as of March 2008, the city ​​with 35 billion was the fourth in the world rankings. [122] The Brookings Institution and JP Morgan, based on the year 2014, are among the 300 cities of Istanbul,He took 3rd place after İzmir . Istanbul was ranked 52nd in the list in 2013. The same list from Turkey in Istanbul and Izmir outside 4 in Bursa and Ankara 9th ranks. According to this report, the unemployment rate in Istanbul in 2014 was realized as 6.5%. [123]

Dersaadet Bond Stock Exchange, which was first opened in Istanbul in 1866, changed its current structure in the beginning of 1986 and today Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) has been opened. [124] [125] Bankalar Caddesi, located in Galata district in the early 19th and early 20th centuries, became the financial center for the Ottoman Empire . In this region, the central bank of the Ottoman Empire, Bank-ı Osmanî (after 1856, reorganized and Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane from 1863) [126] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange were found. [127] Bankalar Caddesi, to be a financial and economic center until 1990, but the beginning of the renewal movement is the result of modern business centers Levent and Maslak districts have been. In 1995, the ISE moved to its present-day building in Sarıyer ‘s İstinye district. [128]

Today, Istanbul, Turkey ‘s production of 55% and a trade volume of 45%. It constitutes 21.2% of Gross National Product in the country . The share of total exports is 45.2% and the import share is 52.2%.


Istanbul is one of the most popular tourism centers due to its history, monuments and artifacts and the possession of the Bosphorus . The greatest share among tourists belongs to the Germans. Russians, Americans, Italians and French follow the Germans. In 2011, 8 million 58 thousand tourists came to town. [135] It is possible to find a hotel for every budget in Istanbul. There are more than 1180 hotels from 5-star chain hotels to boutique family-run hotels. In recent years, chain hotels that have been named worldwide have shown great interest in Istanbul.

It is possible to encounter historical monuments dating from various periods of history in almost every part of the land of Istanbul, which has been home to various human societies for thousands of years. Among the thousands of historical works listed on the inventories are city walls, palaces, castles, glass, churches, synagogues, fountains and mansions.

According to 2009 statistics, Istanbul is the most visited tourist after Antalya . [136] In 2009, the number of tourists entering by air, land and sea is just over 7.5 million. [136] The Germans are the first with a share of 13.1% , and the Russians with the share of 6.7 % . The first tourist group hosted by Istanbul came to visit Sergi-i Umumi-i Osmani in 1863 . [138] [139] The number of tourists increased with the connection of Istanbul to Europe by railway . Pera Palas, the first hotel in Istanbul, was established to meet the increased demand for accommodation .[139]

According to 2009 data, there are 371 accommodation and 405 recreational facilities in Istanbul. [137] [140] There are many museums in Istanbul, and there are also private museums. In 2009 alone, only 6,179,556 people visited the state museums. [119] Among the places visited,

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