Gumushane is a black sea province of Turkey.   For people who wish to apply for visa to Turkey from UK can obtain their visa through our website online. Once the application for visa to Turkey is approved for UK passport holders,  you would be responsible to download and print your visa prior to your arrival to Turkey. Visa to Turkey is available for a limited period of 6 months.

History

ümüşhane, which was established at a height of 1150 m above sea level and formed by Harşit Creek , has been an important center throughout history due to the existence of silver beds which went back to ancient times and to the historical Silk Road .

Antiquity

The first written source giving detailed information about Gümüşhane and its surroundings is the work of Ksenophon named Anabasis as it is in other Eastern Black Sea countries . Xenophon and thousands of soldiers, who wanted to return to Greece by sea after the war with the Persians, spent months in the Black Sea Region for the collection of necessary vessels and equipment. While staying within the Eastern Black Sea tribes related information that Xenophon at that time in Torul living in the vicinity of a Tzu / Laz tribe that “Driller” [3]The information about it has also received remuneration. The driller with the shields, spears and kneelers from the sorghum tree has been portrayed as the most warlike tribe of the Black Sea. [4]

The Macedonian King Alexander the Great ended the Persian domination of Anatolia and then partly free, and the surroundings of Gümüşhane were later annexed by the Pontus Kingdom . Like the other Eastern Black Sea figures, Gümüşhane has also faced the Roman Empire alongside Pontus King Great Mithridates . Being proud of the loss of Mithridates ‘ son Pharnakes to Julius Caesar in Zela , and defeating the tribes of the Black Sea that scared all Rome at that time, Caesar is world famous, ” I came, I saw, my …

Canca (Gümüşhane) during the Ottoman Empire period; Janik , Lazistan (Canet in / Canone) and Central (Trabzon) with starboard Trabzon province ‘s status was one of four banners. In honor of the city’s past, the Ottoman Empire was named after the real name “Canca” of Gümüşhane center. Gümüşhane, which became the mint of the Ottoman Empire with the conquest of Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1473 , greeted a sixth of the empire’s treasure. The silver coins printed here are printed on “Canca”. It was written. Apart from the fact that the empire is a mint, the YenişeriThe guns of the army of the army are poured in Gümüşhane. Especially in the 18th century, eighty percent of the military expenditure of the empire was met by Canca. [12]

It is evident that Evliya Çelebi ‘s “Silver here is not in any other city,” which Katip Çelebi , who travels the region , has introduced as “Important and Lively” . Gümüşhane, which he transferred to us with his sentence, was exhausted when it came to the second half of the 19th century, and the city started to fall backward because there was no silver deposit in the amount worth to go out.

That erupted in the summer of 1914, the First World War ‘with the fall of the same year the Russians , the Ottoman Empire had’ na attack. Following the invasion of the Eastern Black Sea in 1916 by the Russians, the 3rd Army, 18th Infantry Division, defended in the Gümüşhane- Torul line called the Lazian Front . [13] In place of the Orthodox-Christian Tsarist Russians who fought the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1918 , the Orthodox-Christian inhabitants replaced the Pontus UprisingThey started. The Gümüşhaneli Orthodox Christian families, who were called “Heads of Mining Operations” in Gümüşhane during the Imperial period and who brought the bishops of Haldia out of their own hands and were unbelievably rich according to the contemporary sources, became the financiers of this rebellion. [14] The indigenous people who had assimilated and conquered the Byzantine churches 1400 years ago thus rebelled against the Ottoman Empire, but this rebellion was again suppressed by the struggle of the indigenous Topal Osman Agha ‘s “Giresun volunteer Laz detachments”.

Following the abolition of the Republic of Trabzon Province , Gümüşhane; Torul , Kelkit , Şiran and Bayburt provinces, covering the provinces. In 1989 he took Bayburt province status and left Gümüşhane. Today, Gümüşhane, a province that continuously emigrates, continues to emigrate because of not having sufficient business area.

Economy

The tribes living in the region extending from Samsun to Artvin and even to Russia have been famous for the milling art for thousands of years. The Golden Post Efsanesi , which tells about 3300 years before today, is also built with the lines of this mining art. Legend telling the adventure of the Greek hero army, who came to Kolkhis , the ruling culture of the Black Sea , to seize a coach post from underneath, is a reflection of the curiosity of the people of ancient Greece on the local mining.

The ” Ilyada ” epic, which tells about a generation after the Golden Post Legend , about 3250 years before our day , refers to the tribes of the Black Sea called Amazons and Halizons, who took part in the Trojan War . Halisons in Homeros Ilyada “The sun comes from Alybe, a far-flung city, where silver melts in mines. [15] , shows us how famous the region mining, which was also called Khalybia in those years, is famous. Khalybler, known as the tribe teaching to the Greek Greeks, speaks to Greek with the word “Khalyb” meaning “steel” in Greek, and from “Khalips”

As the Eastern Black Sea mining was the subject of the oldest epics , the region’s mines filled the treasures of the great empires that ruled the world, with the Roman and Byzantine Empires , the Ottoman Empire from the Trabzon Empire . Particularly in the Ottoman Empire, the main resource that solved precious mine troubles was the mines of the region. In addition, these mines were not only made of silver and iron, but also the ammunition of the Janissary army in the eastern expeditions of the Ottoman Empire with bullets and rifle bullets poured out of the bullets .

British Geologist William John Hamilton who came to the region in 1836 ; “(…) Gumushane, for miners in every region of Turkey, as a school that I like. Continuous stated, Small’s in very remote areas of Asia, we see that when a research about mining, or miners came from Gumushane, or through Gumushane they have become miners, or there is a relationship between them and Gümüşhane (…) “. The monumental silver bishop made by silver from the mines that made the mines of Gümüşhane family extraordinarily wealthy has become a symbol of the region’s richness by adorning metropolitans of Haldia.

By the end of the 19th century, the mines had been exhausted and the mines were closed because the production and the cost of extraction were barely met. With the closure of the quarries and the livelihoods being exhausted, the Gümüşhaneliler began to migrate from here to all over Anatolia and Russia. [16]This event also shook Gümüşhane economy deeply. Moreover, since the richness of the riches and the fuel requirement of the mines which are constantly working for the Ottoman Empire’s waiting are met by the Gümüşhane forests, Gümüşhane reverberant tree cuts, once green and wooded like the other Eastern Black Sea figures, remain naked today in terms of plant cover. Because during the excavation of the mines excavated 36 kg for 1 kg lead and 200 kg for 1 kg silver were used. If 1 kg of charcoal is used, 3-4 kg of wood charcoal is obtained from the wood. These activities hurt the vegetation so that the Ottoman army who walks over Trabzon in 1461 had difficulty in moving to the region due to the forest, and in 1701 Joseph Pitton de Toumefort.

Climate

Although the northern part of the province is influenced by the warm and humid climate of the Black Sea , the hard continental climate of the Eastern Anatolia region is seen in the large part of Gümüşhane . In Gümüşhane, whose summers are hot and short, it is long and snowy with the effect of the height of the winters, the amount of rainfall decreases as you go towards the inner parts.

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