Eskisehir a province renowned for its youth and education. To visit Eskisehir Irish nationals must obtain their Turkish visa from Ireland. You must submit your application online. Once you have received your visa approval, please ensure that you print your visa before arrival. Turkish e visa is valid for 6 months, entry status may depend on your nationality.

Eskisehir Province

Eskisehir, Turkey ‘s most populous province and the city is the twenty-fifth. With the law issued in 1993, it became a Metropolitan Municipality . The population is 826,716 by the year 2015. The city that passes Porsuk Brook in the middle is a student city because of Osmangazi University and Anadolu University .

Met helvası , Nuga helva, Poppy bun , Cubic water, çibörek and meerschaum . In addition, balaban kebab also takes an important place in Eskişehir cuisine. Meerschaum be processed, alone in Eskisehir in Turkey known as the cornerstone for Eskisehir is removed. [2] Turkey in Eskişehir and Sivrihisar around which grows a sheepdog akbaş one of the important values of the city. [3] It is an advanced city in art institutions and facilities, culture and art. There are two symphony orchestras in Anatolia University and Metropolitan Municipality . Also organized every yearWith the International Eskişehir Festival , exhibitions and performances are held in the city in the fields of music, theater, painting and cinema. [4]

Eskisehir continued its existence under various civilizations as the day-to-day. Some of the civilizations founded on these are Phrygia , Byzantine , Anatolian Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire . [5]

Combat Air Force, Air Missile Defense Command, 1st Air Supply and Maintenance Central Command and 1st Main Jet Base Command are also located in Eskişehir , under Turkish Armed Forces Air Force Command . There are also military and civil airports (Anadolu University Airport).
In 2013, Eskişehir carries titles of the Turkish World Culture Capital and the UNESCO Non-Concrete Cultural Heritage Capital. [6] Turkish Airlines ‘ Airbus A330-200 type aircraft, TC-JNG, ‘Eskişehir’ is the name.


In 1289 , the Anatolian Seljuks gave Eskisehir to Osman Gazi . In the period of Orhan Gazi , Eskişehir, which was in the hands of Karaman , I. Murad re-added to the Ottoman lands.

Until the early days of Fatih, the city remained connected to the Ankara Headquarters. After 1451, when Kütahya became Beylerbeylik, there was a change in the Administrative Organization of Anatolia, while Eskişehir, connected to Ankara, was connected to Kütahya Beylerbeylik. [9]

In 1601 , Celali Deli Hassan and his supporters passed away. Hüdavendigâr ( Bursa ) Vilayet’in Kütahya an accident connected to the railway Eskişehir’e railway reached in 1890 years. [8]

With the railroad coming to Eskişehir, trade was revived in the city. [8] Immigrants from the Caucasians , Crimea , Romania and Bulgaria were settled during the 19th century . [10] After the Ottoman-Russian war of 1877-1878, the emigrants began to develop together with the beginning of placement. [9] Based on the fact that the Entente Powers , one of the materials of the Mondros Fire , could occupy important points within the borders of the Ottoman Empire for security reasons, November 13, 1918 British forces who came to Istanbul on their way started to occupy important places along the Istanbul-Baghdad railway line. After 2.5 months from this occupation, they established headquarters around Eskisehir Station in late January 1919.

As Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emphasized in his speech on 15 January 1923 in the Government House, Eskisehir made a great contribution to the victory of the war. For this reason, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was interested in the city’s development. With the investments made during the Republican period, a modern city was tried to be created in a short time. [8]

After the declaration of Republic, Eskisehir became a province in 1925 . [17] In 1926, there were three districts of Eskişehir, Sivrihisar , Mihalıççık and Seyitgazi . With the law issued in 1954 Çifteler and Mahmudiye , another law issued in 1957, Sarıcakaya district was brought up and the number of districts increased to 6. [17]

Then in 1987 with the law numbered 3392 Alpu , Beylikova and İnönü ; With the Law No. 3544 of 9 May 1990 , Günyüzü , Han and Mihalgazi districts were brought up, so the number of districts increased to 12. [17] With the law number 5747 published in the official gazette dated 22 March 2008, the central district was removed and two new districts were established with the name Odunpazarı and Tepebaşı , and the total number of provinces reached 14.

Eskişehir was awarded with the title of ” metropolitan” by the decree numbered 504 enacted on September 2, 1993 [18] . With the law numbered 5216 issued in 2004, the borders of the metropolitan municipality were enlarged to the borders of the province with a radius of 20 km. [19] with Law No. 6360 issued in 2012, 2014 Turkey’s local elections, then the boundaries of metropolitan municipalities was provincial territorial boundaries.


The climate of the city in Central Anatolia type of continental climate ‘is. The winters are cold and snowy, the summers are hot and without precipitation. Rainfall (except for mountainous areas) is short and short. July , August and September are months with the least rainfall. The average annual precipitation is 373.6 mm. 90-100 days a year is rainy. The temperature regime is terrestrial. For example, the average of the hottest and coldest months in Eskişehir province center, which is at an altitude of 800 meters, is 21.5 ° C and -0.8 ° C (July and January), the highest and lowest values ​​recorded are 39.1 ° C and -26 , & Lt; / RTI & gt; The vegetation cover is the typical vegetation cover of the Central Anatolia Region .


Socio-economic development in terms of Turkey ‘s is one of the leading province, with 783 organizations operating in the area of 32 million m² has one of Turkey’s largest Organized Industrial Zones. [60] The history of the industry, which has been the foundation of the provincial economy since the end of the 1950s , dates back to the Ceramics Workshop established in 1894 during the construction of the Baghdad Railway , and this workshop was transferred to TCDD operation in 1924. [61]

In addition to large state enterprises, there are a large number of private organizations that have been realized with local capital investments accelerating after 1960 . The main industrial branches are food, textile, locomotive, machine manufacturing, brick, tile and cement. Almost all industrial establishments are concentrated in the city center. [62]There are also locomotives and engines, press, sugar, cement bricks and tiles, flour, biscuits and confectionery, concrete poles, aircraft maintenance and repair (tusaş), vinegar and wine, chipboard and furniture, refrigerator and stove factories in the city. Besides these factories, there are factories that will produce different productions in the organized industrial zone. In the small industrial site, there are woodwork, metalwork, foundry and various manufacturing and worktops. There are auto engine repair and maintenance workshops and benches at İlin industrial market. As of the end of 2006, the number of union workers working in the city is 48,790. [63]

The province ranked 19th in the country with its exports of 472 million 118 thousand dollars in 2007. Approximately 7 million dollars of exports made in 2007 were made in agriculture, 450 million dollars in industry and 15 million dollars in mining sector. [64]

Eskişehir Sugar Factory from the first factories of Eskişehir. Establishment date: 1939
The major commodities sold by the city are agricultural products, crude or concentrate of various ores, sugar, biscuits, cement, refrigerators, motor vehicles, parts of aircraft, ceramic products and mint. The main import goods are boilers, machines, mechanical devices; electrical machinery and equipment; land vehicles; plastics and articles thereof; leather and dying materials. [65]

Underground wealth is one of the important economic resources of Eskisehir. Mining has an important place in the development of the provincial industry and in the increase of exports over the years. Some of the important mine reserves in the province are; magnesite, chrome, boron, clay, marble and meerschaum.

After being exported without being processed abroad for several years, meerschaum has been exported in the 1970’s as a raw material for pipes and ornaments, while being prohibited from being exported raw. The Sepiolite mine is also an important underground wealth of Eskisehir.

The chrome mine is one of the other important underground riches of Eskisehir. It is used in coating of steel and other materials, defense industry, refractory material production and various chemicals.

An important mineral is the boron salts produced by the Etibank Kırka Borax Company.
It is also one of the important reserves that has the clay, ilin which is used to produce bricks , tiles and ceramics .

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