History

Adıyaman, which has hosted 16 different civilizations, is neighbor to Malatya in the north, Kahramanmaraş in the west, Gaziantep in the south, Şanlıurfa in the south, and Diyarbakir in the east. It forms the upper boundary of the land known as Fertile Crescent for thousands of years to the south of the Southeastern Taurus, to the west of the Zagros Mountains, to the Gulf of Basra, in the center of the Middle East countries.​

Nemrut Mountain, which is the center of attention of the whole world with its magnificent god and king sculptures, which is the symbol of Commagene Civilization, adds color to the country’s tourism with its guests who are welcomed every year. The magnificent grave hill and its surroundings of Mount Nemrut, which was taken to UNESCO’s list of “World Cultural Heritage” in 1987, is one of the nine works included in the list on the Anatolian soil. The region, which was declared a National Park in 1988, was awarded the “Golden Apple Dulü” which was accepted as Tourism Oscar by the International Tourism Writers and Journalists Federation FİJET in 2004.

Adıyaman, with its historical richness and natural beauty, contributes to the country’s economy with tourism, as well as energy, oil and agricultural products. Approximately 25% of the crude oil produced in the country is obtained from oil wells in the province.

The city, which undertakes to serve as a bridge between the Eastern and Southeastern Anatolian Regions, also partially carries the characteristics of the Mediterranean Region. Adıyaman, which is a door that opens to both east and west with this direction, also reflects the characteristics of these three regions in the diversity of climate and vegetation cover. According to police crime statistics and gendarmerie, it ranks second with at least crime rate in Turkey.

The Euphrates River, which surrounds the village from all sides, many small rivers and healing waters sprinkling in depth make Adiyaman a city rich in water. A large part of the province’s territory that forms the border with the Euphrates River is under the waters of the Atatürk Dam, which is among the world’s several dams. The Ataturk Dam Lake, which keeps the capital Samosata under water, adds a different color to the social life of the city. The area, which has a holiday town view, is also home to sailing races organized every year as well as various water sports.

The area of ​​Adiyaman has a surface area of ​​7,614 km2, and the population of the city is 590,933.

The god of the gods Zeus, Apollo, Heracles, the Goddess Commagene representing the fortune and luck, and King Antiochos with all the boldness near it … The god of the gods has been sweeping all the time in the protection of the eagle and the power lord Aslan for thousands of years.​

The Commagene Civilization brings Adiyaman to the “World Cultural Heritage List” while bringing the title of “Eight Wonders of the World” to Nemrut, a god of god sculptures and magnificent reliefs.

At the summit of Nemrut, in the glorious sunrise of the bride, the words of King Antiochus I still echo:

“When I took over the reign of the ancestors, I made the land of the kingdom, the common land of all the gods. I have honored them as a common custom among people from the past, by cutting sacrifices and organizing feasts, by making their representations in various forms according to the old ways of Persians and Helens where the fortunes of their own sons come. “When I decided to lay the foundations of this temple to the heavenly throne, which is resistant to the history of the time, this sacred space would be an eternal resting place only after I was a passenger in the heavenly throne of Zeus-Oromasdes, the soul of God, I did not want; I have also decided that this is the common throne of all the gods at the same time … ”

Cendere Bridge which remained from 1800 years Roman period, Perre Ancient City which was used as a trade center during the Commagene period, Arsemia which was used as Kommagene Summer Management Center, Kommagene era, which was used as a commercial center in culture era, health tourism, sports tourism, hunting tourism, , but it is home to many such works as Old Kahta Castle which was also used by Roman-Byzantine Mamluks and Karakuş Tumulus which was used as the monumental grave of the Princesses.

Adıyaman Districts

Besni: Gölbaşı in the west and north of Besni, Adiyaman in the northeast and east, Şanlıurfa and Gaziantep in the south, and Kahramanmaraş in the south. Besni is 44 km from Adiyaman. , and these mountains extending in northeast and southwest direction show the plateau feature by descending in western parts of İlçen. Besni is known in the history by the names Behisni, Bihisni, Besne, Behesna, Behisti. Besni is one of the oldest settlements with its history dating back to 5000 BC. In the past, Akatların, Hurrilerin, Mitanniler, and Assyrians attacked. After 1500 BC Persians, Helen and Romans passed the hand. Caliph Hz. During the time of Omar, Rebiatu’l-Bahali from the commanders of Khalid bin Walid seized the region. Having changed hands between the Byzantines and the Abbasids, Besni remained under the rule of the Maraş Senate in 1149. Then Seljuks and Ayyubis ruled here and Sultan I Beyazıt Besni was added to Ottoman lands in 1395. Besni, in 1400, Timur had been invaded, later he changed hands between the Dulkadirogul and the Mamluks. Yavuz Sultan Selim left the region of Besni to Dulkadiroğulları administration during the Egyptian campaign. Besni was formerly on the Aleppo Trade Road and kept its attractiveness and attractiveness at all times, so the name Bethesna, Bihicti, Bisni came to the meaning of “Cennete Eş.” Malazgirt Victory and the Saka-Scythian Turks who entered Anatolia Varsak, Turkmens Avşar and Circassian Oymakları Besni ‘ they entered the city from a three-way street and turned it into a ‘Turkish dorm.’ Besni was the place where Evliya Çelebi said: “I am admired.” Summiting regarding handicrafts during the Ottoman period, Besni became a commodity as a place where traders and caravans from all over Anatolia were placed. During the War of Independence, a national spirit is witnessed in Besni. It is also known that Reşit Bey, the first deputy, gave material and spiritual support to Ataturk as the closest working companion in the Sivas Congress. Hasan and Yusuf, the heads of the tribal tribes of Hüydydi, founded and organized the Kuva-i National Organization and played a significant role in Antep and Marash defenses. During the Republican era, it was as far as the Emir of Fatwa. Many scholars and poets trained in Besni. After 1521, Dulkadiroğulları ‘ With the participation of the Ottoman Empire, Besni became a district connected to the Malatya Sanjay. While it was a district bound to Malatya in the Republican era, in 1926, it became the county of Gaziantep. In 1933, Besni, which is the county of Malatya, became the county of Adıyaman. Besni Castle: 2 km from the county. South of the castle was built on a pointed hill surrounded by steep rocks on three sides. It is possible to get to Kaley only on a steep hillside from the south. Besni Castle, which is very convenient to defend, is still upright with its catapults and other building remains. Although the exact date of the establishment of the castle is unknown, it is believed to have been built by the Mamluks in the 13th century. In 1923 the fortress of Besni was fortified. There is a well in the middle of the castle. In the western part, two large buildings resemble a monument.

Golbasi: Gölbaşı District, which is 63 km away from Adıyaman, is located at the junction connecting the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolia to Eastern Anatolia. It is located in the southwest of the Gölbaşı Gölün, east of Malatya, Doganşehir District of Adiyaman, west of Kahramanmaras, Nurhak District of Kahramanmaras, Besni District of Adıyaman. The village of Gölbaşı, a town connected to the Besni District in 1954, began to become a settlement center in 1934 with the passing of an iron road. Gölbaşı became one of the great cities of Adıyaman. The height of the Gölbaşı district from sea level is 866 m. The surface area is 784 km. The highest mountain is 2500 m. Akdağ is at the height, and Meydan and Borik Mountains follow it. The Göksu Brook passes through the boundaries of the Gölbaşı district, which has a rugged terrain. Besides, the Gölbaşı, Azaplı and Çekli lakes associated with each other are essential lakes of Gölbaşı. Gölbaşı’s basic subsistence is agriculture and animal husbandry. Carpet courses, artisanship, textile workshops, small industries, Historical Buildings: There are Vijne and Altinli Bridges in Gölbaşı District. The date of construction of the Golden Bridge is unknown. This bridge is made of three arcs, and the stones are squeezed without mortar. Cone-shaped spurs were built on the bridge feet to protect against water. It is located at Mendede (Mendede Tumulus). There are water cisterns and caves in the steps at Kız Kapan. There are lots of glass, arrow bars, pots, and pottery remains. In the distance, there is a cave in the place called “Çardak” or “Cave of the Shadow” and an ox-head relief. This place is also called “Musa Gediği.” The tombs were found in the caves in the place called “Forty Bayır” in the north of the village. Gölbaşı, 6 km from Belören Beldesin. It is understood from the remnants of the tombs that there is a ruin of the ruins, which is the historic city of “Heyik” which is the old settlement to the west. 5 km north of Belören Beldesin. Keykubat Castle (surrounded by walls), built in the distance: (The Romans built the castle.) Belören is 5 km south of Belden. In the distance, stone architectural pieces and grave remains, called “Kent,” 4 km. A small rock, consisting of 4 small caves, is 1.5 km away. In the distance Illez, Kani, There are ruins called “Kaba and Öğüt” and Höyük site and Fox Castle. There are many architectural stones, ceramics, and cisterns here. South of Belören Beldesin; 2 km. There is also a mound at “Peri Önü” in the distance. On the southwest of Çataltepe Village, in the natural cave called Kara Cave is 1 m. There are grain storage or wine well remnants, churches and house remnants at a depth of 2 meters and at a depth of 2 meters.

Tutu: It lies to the south of Akdağ on the skirts of the Southeast Taurus Mountains. The land is generally mountainous and rugged. Altitude from the sea (Altitude) is 1,050 meters. The district is a plateau. The Göksu River, which is the branch of the Euphrates, passes through the district center. Tut District 09.05.1990 It was separated from Besni District and became a district of Adıyaman. Doganşehir District of Malatya Province surrounds it in the north, Adıyaman in the east, Gölbaşı in the west and Besni District in the south. Göksu River, Şebker and Sovak Çayı are the most significant streams of the province, and the history of the surroundings is based on the ancient people. Historical monuments are found in Kaşlıca and Sürmen region. Located at the west of Erder Dere Castle, next to Deresi, there are house remains, bedrooms and graves in Sürmen. With the water scar seen in the steep places of the Ermiş Dere, the Rose Hall, which extends from Tut to Kaşlıca, is a very crowded settlement unit. The historic Vijne Bridge, on the Göksu River passing through Tut, has served caravan columns of old times for a long time with its magnificent structure standing today. It is known that two bridges similar to this bridge have been destroyed by floods and natural causes in previous years. An analog of the Vijne Bridge is the historical bridge that still serves. This bridge is an important historical building that connects Tut’s Tepecik Village and Adiyaman’s central Şerefli Village. It is understood that today’s Tut district is an important settlement unit according to records of the 15th year of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman era. In the paper in the Tahrir (Census) book, It is stated that the settlement unit is the Sheikh Abdurrahman-ı Erzincan foundation. History and Tourist Places in the Province: * Ulu Mosque * Salah Mosque * Musalla Mosque * Kaşlıca Castle * Malkayısı, * Memkli Cave * Geyik Cagası * All All Cave

Gerger: It shows some differences due to the geographically located mountainous area with a character suitable to the general history of the province. Gerger, situated in the north-east of Adıyaman, has a surface area of ​​702 km. To the north is Pötürge District of Malatya; Diyarbakir ‘ın Çüngüş and Çermik in the east, Siverek in Şanlıurfa; south of Kahta and west of the Sincik Districts. The eastern and southern border of the province is drawn by Atatürk Dam Lake built on the Euphrates River. The winters are cold, and the summers are hot and cold. With these features, it has a Mediterranean climate and a black climate. Altitude from sea level is 770 meters. The district was established in a mountainous region. The highest point is the Mount Pinar at 2.250 meters. Kürdek, Hacı, Some and Kımıl are important mountains. Çet, Kurdek, Ovacık, Kımıl Mountains and White Fountains are the main springs. There is also a lake named Kara Göl between Güngörmü and Gürgenli Villagers. 5 km from the county. There are Murfan Caves in the north of Eskikent Village. Gerger; 105 km from the city center. Transportation is by road. The road network is; It goes as far as Adıyaman, Kahta, Narince, Gerger, and Gölyurt. Important rivers in the district limits are the Euphrates River, Demirtas Creek, and Çifthisar Creek. According to some sources BC VI. King Arsames of Seleucus, who lived in the first half of the century, founded Lower Arsameia in the west of the Euphrates. The place called Lower Arsameia is the Gerger Kalesidir. Gerger later passed into the hands of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. In 135 Hijri, Abu Cafer-el Mansur of the Abbasi Caliphate, Adıyaman, Kahta, and Samsat, also took this place together. Gerger, after this date, has begun Islamization. Later on, Gerger and his surroundings were weakened by the Abbasids, and then they were again overtaken by the Byzantines. After the collapse of the Seljuks, they passed on to the Artukids and then to the Byzantines. The Zengiler, Artuklular, Frank Count, Ayyubiler and then Anatolian Seljuks, Gerger was subjected to the Mongol invasion and passed by the Mongols after the Mongols who had the opportunity to fall into the difficult situation of the Seljuks due to the rebellion of the father, Ishak. It is seen that the Mamluks and the Timurids passed away. After the withdrawal of the Timurids, it is seen that Dulkadiroğulları passed over and they were in their hands for a long time, and 1515 Battle of Turnadağ passed the Ottoman Empire. When Malatya Sanjak was founded in 1859, Gerger was connected to Malatya. Entering the Republican period as a village connected to Malatya-Pütürge District, Gerger adhered to Adıyaman on 1 December 1954. Gerger Castle: Built during the Roman period, the fortresses, fortress doors, and vaulted building groups were added to the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. Much of the remains are still standing today. Gerger Castle, located on the western bank of the Euphrates River, It was founded by Arsames, who was the homeland of the Kommagenellers in the 2nd century AD. The castle forms the eastern border of the Kingdom of Commagene and is the control point for the passage over the Euphrates. The Gerger Castle, built on the Sarp rocks in two sections, Lower and Upper Kale, was the first administrative center of the Kommageneliler, and was also a sacred temple. Lower Kalede Medieval ‘ Although it is known that Islamic buildings belong to the family, the remains are not in good condition. Stairs and corridors carved from the rocks and remains belonging to water cisterns are also found in this section. When the western walls of Lower Kale are viewed from the outside, there is a relief of King Samos carved on the rock. The rendezvous King Samos was depicted standing on the ceremonial garment with arms and extending his right hand forward.

Transportation

Highway: The main road connecting the Mediterranean Region to the Eastern and Southeastern Anatolian regions passes through the Adıyaman Gölbaşı district. Gölbaşı District is a town which is 60 km away from the center of Adıyaman. In addition, every day from Adıyaman, Adana, Mersin, Antalya, Ankara, Istanbul, Eskisehir, Bursa, İzmir, Afyon, Uşak, Konya, Diayarbakır, Malatya, Sivas, Tokat, Amasya, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Rize, Kahramanmaras, There are scheduled bus services to Kayseri and Şanlıurfa.

Airway: Adiyaman Airport is located in the middle of Adıyaman and Kahta districts. Approximately 15 Km to Adiyaman City Center. It is located in the distance. Daily flights to Istanbul and Ankara are carried out from this airport. In addition, Sanliurfa Gap Airport and Gaziantep Airport can be used as the closest airports between other provinces.

Railway: The railway passes through Gölbaşı district, which is 60 km away from the center of Adıyaman.

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